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经济学人:反格林童话
来源:译言网 | 7/29/2013 12:07:25 PM | 浏览:714 | 评论:0

译者:carrieshen原文作者:The Economist

  迪士尼版《白雪公主》、《灰姑娘》、《贝尔和长发姑娘》中的女主人公身上都带着此类毫无生气的愚蠢,让人奇怪她们怎能成功地打入21世纪

What modern mother hasn’t cringed at the pink and passive fairy tale princesses served up to her impressionable girl? The Disney versions of Snow White and Cinderella, Belle and Rapunzel are heroines of such vapid foolishness one wonders how they survived into the 21st century. The answer is that they are rooted in a tenacious and remarkably unaltered cultural tradition, the fairy tales first published two centuries ago by the Brothers Grimm.

  给自己天真敏感的女儿念的童话里那些听任摆布的粉红公主, 现代妈妈中有几个不害怕?迪士尼版《白雪公主》、《灰姑娘》、《贝尔和长发姑娘》中的女主人公身上都带着此类毫无生气的愚蠢,让人奇怪她们怎能成功地打入21世纪。答案是她们植根于根深蒂固的文化传统——两个世纪以前格林兄弟首次出版的童话故事。

经济学人:反格林童话

The fifty iconic tales in their Kinder- und Hausmärchen collection feature a parade of weak, disobedient heroines whose errors draw down harsh punishment, and an equally noteworthy succession of heroic boys. Numerous studies in recent decades have found the 19th century social world they portray so unremittingly sexist that some leading folklorists warn against reading them to children at all.

  《格林童话》中50个带图故事描绘了大量柔弱而不听话的女主人公,她们所犯的错误招致严厉的处罚,此外故事中还描绘了一大批同样值得关注的英雄男孩。近几十年来的大量研究发现,这些故事展现的19世纪社会环境中,性别歧视是如此绵密,以致某些领衔的民俗学者告诫说千万别给孩子念这些故事。

This is why the discovery of a huge new trove of unedited German fairy tales is nothing short of a revelation. These tales, only of few of which were published in the 1850s, were collected in the Upper Palatinate region of Germany by Franz Xaver von Schönwerth, a scholar intent on preserving the rapidly vanishing folk wisdom of his region. What they reveal, in abrupt contrast to the Brothers Grimm, is an equal-opportunity world where the brave and clever children are as likely to be girls as boys, and the vulnerable, exploited youths are not just princesses, but princes.

  因此,大批未经编辑的德国童话故事的“出土”简直是件惊人的大发现。这些故事中只有很少几则曾在19世纪50年代出版过。它们在德国上普法尔茨地区收集到,收集者弗朗兹·克萨韦尔·冯·希昂韦斯是位学者,他致力于保存当地迅速消失的民间智慧。这些童话和格林兄弟的童话形成鲜明对比,前者描绘机会平等的世界,里面勇敢聪明的孩子既可能是男孩,也可能是女孩,而那些受利用的脆弱青年不光有公主也有王子。

We meet here the male counterpart of the badly behaved princess in the Grimms’ Frog King, forced to keep a promise to let a repellent toad into her bed. In Schönwerth’s version, he is a boy named Jodl who, equally repelled, must repay the toad’s kindness the same way. Snow White’s repudiation by a wicked stepmother is countered by Schönwerth’s story of King Goldenlocks, who too is initially banished to the forest to be slain by a hunter, who must return with his lungs, finger and heart.

  还记得格林童话里的《青蛙王子》吗?故事里那位骄横任性的公主因为要守信而被迫无奈地让一只她觉得很恶心的青蛙睡在自己的床上。在希昂韦斯的版本里我们可以找到这位公主的男性版本。他是一个名叫乔德尔的男孩,要以同样的方式报答青蛙的好心,而他也觉得那只青蛙非常恶心。白雪公主被邪恶的继母抛弃的故事在希昂韦斯童话中也有对应,那就是《金锁王》,他在故事中一开始也被逐入森林,一位猎人受令要将他杀害,带回他的肺、手指和心脏作为证据。

Clever, resourceful girls also make an appearance. The Three Princesses tells the story of sisters enslaved by a witch, the youngest of whom saves an unsuspecting prince in an ingenious way. Grabbing a sword, she magically turns herself into a lake, which the old witch sucks down. The princess slashes her way out of the witch’s belly and claims her prince.

  故事里也有聪明机灵的女孩。《三公主》讲述的是姐妹受女巫奴役的故事,其中最小的妹妹用巧妙的方式搭救了一位不知情的王子。她手握宝剑,用魔法将自己变成湖泊。恶女巫喝干了湖水,小公主用剑砍开女巫的肚子,讨到了她的王子。

Inspired by the Grimms’ first publication in 1812, Schönwerth trekked to remote villages and hearths to collect these oral tales. After his book of folk sayings and legends, including a few fairy tales, was published in 1857, Jacob Grimm himself praised the Bavarian’s “careful, comprehensive collecting and fine ear.” Indeed, scholars say, what is most striking is their authenticity. These tales are “fresh, unlicked,” says Erika Eichenseer, the folklorist who unearthed them “by heaps,” forgotten among Schönwerth’s papers in the Regensburg historical archive. Maria Tatar, a fairy tale expert at Harvard University, concurs. Nearly all collections, especially the Grimms, were edited to reflect the morals of the day, she says. Schönwerth’s, by contrast, are “raw, not cooked.”

  受格林兄弟最早发表于1812年的童话集影响,希昂韦斯走遍偏远的村庄和家庭,收集了这些口头传述的故事。他在1857年出版了一本收集了民间谚语、传说的书籍,其中包括了几则童话。雅各布·格林曾对他大加赞赏,称赞这位巴伐利亚人“精心全面的收集和善于倾听的耳朵。”确实,很多学者认为这些童话最惊人之处在于它们原汁原味。这些故事长年来一直沉睡在雷根斯堡历史档案馆中,把这些“成堆”的宝藏发掘出来的民俗学家艾丽卡·爱琴斯尔称这些故事“非常新鲜,未经修琢”。哈佛大学的一位童话专家玛丽亚·塔塔尔表示同意。她指出几乎所有现存的童话集,尤其是格林童话,都曾经过编辑修改来反映当时的道德观念。相比之下,希昂韦斯的童话“未经任何加工处理。”

“He helps us see the degree to which the Grimms were selective in terms of gender, favoring stories about beautiful persecuted heroines and bold heroes,” Ms Tatar says. Ms Eichenseer agrees: “There’s hardly any sign of all the pretty little princesses, and not a trace of the scolding lifted finger.”

经济学人:反格林童话

  塔塔尔说:“他帮助我们看到了格林兄弟根据性别挑选童话到了多严重的程度。他们偏好有着美丽受害的女主人公和勇敢无畏的男主人公的故事。”爱琴斯尔对此同意:“在希昂韦斯的童话中几乎找不到漂亮小公主的迹象,而且完全没有指指点点责骂的情节。”

What the discovery makes clear is the degree to which this revered Western canon is a social construct. Far from being transcendent examples of universal values, as Bruno Bettelheim argued, these tales were edited and fixed at a specific historical moment. The publication history of the Grimms’ Tales is instructive. First published as a large academic collection, the tales were very consciously edited and re-edited by Wilhelm Grimm into a shorter and less bawdy work explicitly intended as moral instruction for 19th century children. Tales by Charles Perrault and Hans Christian Andersen were set down at that same rigidly gender-divided time.

  这项发现表明这本倍受尊崇的西方正典很大程度上是一个社会产物。布鲁诺·贝特廉曾认为格林童话是普世价值的杰出实例。现实和这一看法失之千里,格林童话中的故事都是在特定的历史时期进行编辑修改过的。《格林童话》的出版史就很说明问题。它最早是以一部大型学术文集的形式出版的,其内容后来被威廉·格林特意进行反复编辑修订成一本篇幅较短、内容没那么粗鄙的童话集。这么做的目的就是专门为了给19世纪的孩子提供一种道德指导。夏尔·佩罗和汉斯·安徒生的童话也是在那个性别划分非常死板的年代成书的。

Hence what Ms Tatar calls “the folktale’s tenacious emphasis on the evils of female pride.” Ruth Bottigheimer, in a 1987 study, Grimms’ Bad Girls and Bold Boys, marshaled evidence of Wilhelm’s “apparent inner drive to incriminate females.” Ms Tatar’s analysis, across the broader canon, reveals a similar pattern. “Women are consistently punished for haughtiness, as children are for disobedience and curiosity.”  The Grimms’ versions prevailed in part thanks to early English translation of their tales, in 1823. This popular British edition, illustrated by George Cruikshank, Dickens’ illustrator, helped them to permeate the Anglo-American consciousness. Today, thankfully, Schönwerth’s fresher, more original tellings have been awakened from their long, enchanted slumber.

  这就造成了塔塔尔女士所说的问题——“童话孜孜不倦地强调女性骄傲的邪恶性。”卢斯·博体格姆在1987年出版的《格林兄弟的坏女孩和勇敢男孩》中就整理了多方证据,证明威廉“明显致力于给女性定罪”。塔塔尔基于收编更广的原版格林童话的分析也显示了同一迹象。“女性一直因为傲慢而受到惩罚,而孩子则因为不听话或是好奇而受到惩罚。”格林兄弟的版本后来得到普及一定程度上是因为1823年该书的早期英译本。这部大受欢迎的英译本中的插画出于狄更斯的插画家乔治·克鲁克香克之手。该版本使得这部书渗透入英美观念中。谢天谢地,现在希昂韦斯那些更新鲜、更原创的故事终于从漫长的魔法睡眠中苏醒了过来。

An English edition will be our reward. Prinz Rosszwifl (Prince Dung Beetle), published by Ms Eichenseer, is being translated by Ms Tatar and Jack Zipes, another eminent folklorist. And this September, to celebrate the Grimms’ bicentennial, the author Philip Pullman will publish a new retelling of his own. One only hopes someone has waved a fairy wand and presented him with something close to the full story: The Annotated Brothers Grimm, edited by Ms Tatar, with an introduction by A.S. Byatt.

  该童话集的一本英语版将会面市,对我们来说有如一份大奖。由爱琴斯尔女士出版,目前塔塔尔女士和另一位著名的民俗学家杰克·茨伯兹正在共同翻译这本题为《屎壳郎王子》的童话集。今年9月,为了庆祝格林童话问世200周年,作家菲利普·普尔曼将会出版一本他自己的重写本。我们只希望有人挥一挥魔杖,让他能看到更接近于完整故事实貌的一个版本:塔塔尔所著,内含拜雅特所写的引言的那本《格林童话注解本》。

采编:若橘
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